可生物降解材料定义及降解机理

可生物降解材料定义及降解机理

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生物降解材料,亦称为“绿色生态材料”,指的是在土壤微生物和酶的作用下能降解的材料。具体地讲,就是指在一定条件下,能在细菌、霉菌、藻类等自然界的微生物作用下,导致生物降解的高分子材料。

Biodegradable materials, also known as "green ecological materials," refer to materials that can be degraded under the action of soil microorganisms and enzymes. Specifically, it refers to polymer materials that can be biodegraded under certain conditions by natural microorganisms such as bacteria, molds, and algae.

理想的可生物降解材料是一种具有优良的使用性能、废弃后可被环境微生物完全分解、转化成CO2和H2O而成为自然界中碳素循环的一个组成部分的高分子材料。

The ideal biodegradable material is a polymer material with excellent performance, which can be completely decomposed by environmental microorganisms after being discarded, and ultimately converted into CO2 and H2O, becoming a component of the carbon cycle in nature.

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生物降解材料的分解主要是通过微生物的作用,因而,生物降解材料的降解机理即材料被细菌、霉菌等作用消化吸收的过程。,微生物向体外分泌水解酶与材料表面结合,通过水解切断表面的高分子链,生成小分子量的化合物,然后降解的生成物被微生物摄入体内,经过种种代谢路线,合成微生物体物或转化为微生物活动的能量,终转化成水和二氧化碳。按其降解的化学本质则分为水解和酶解两种。

The decomposition of biodegradable materials is mainly through the action of microorganisms, therefore, the degradation mechanism of biodegradable materials is the process of material digestion and absorption by bacteria, fungi, and other factors. Firstly, microorganisms secrete hydrolytic enzymes to bind with the surface of the material, hydrolyze and cut off the polymer chains on the surface to generate small molecular weight compounds. The degraded products are then ingested into the body by microorganisms, and through various metabolic pathways, they synthesize microbial biomass or convert it into energy for microbial activity, ultimately converting it into water and carbon dioxide. According to the chemical nature of its degradation, it can be divided into two types: hydrolysis and enzymatic hydrolysis.

在生物可降解材料中,对降解起主要作用的是细菌、霉菌、真菌和放线菌等微生物,按其降解作用的形式又可分为3种:

In biodegradable materials, microorganisms such as bacteria, molds, fungi, and actinomycetes play a major role in degradation, and can be further divided into three types according to their forms of degradation:

生物的物理作用,由于生物细胞的增长而使材料发生机械性毁坏;

The physical effects of biology cause mechanical damage to materials due to the growth of biological cells;

生物的生化作用,微生物对材料作用而产生新的物质;

The biochemical effects of organisms, where microorganisms act on materials to produce new substances;

酶的直接作用,微生物侵蚀材料制品部分成分进而导致材料分解或氧化崩溃。

The direct action of enzymes can lead to microbial erosion of some components of material products, resulting in material decomposition or oxidation collapse.

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